WEBVTT 1 00:00:00.533 --> 00:00:03.600 (serious music) 2 00:00:03.600 --> 00:00:06.960 Hi, I'm Tom Field with Information Security Media Group. 3 00:00:06.960 --> 00:00:09.940 Privileged to welcome back to ISMG studio, 4 00:00:09.940 --> 00:00:11.763 retired general, Keith Alexander. 5 00:00:11.763 --> 00:00:15.210 He's the CEO of IronNet Cybersecurity. 6 00:00:15.210 --> 00:00:17.290 General, thank you so much for joining me today. 7 00:00:17.290 --> 00:00:18.930 Honored to be here, thank you very much. 8 00:00:18.930 --> 00:00:21.220 Now it's been nearly six years since you 9 00:00:21.220 --> 00:00:24.100 line:15% established IronNet Cybersecurity, right? 10 00:00:24.100 --> 00:00:24.933 line:15% It has, yes. 11 00:00:24.933 --> 00:00:28.020 Now, I talked to one of your investors yesterday 12 00:00:28.020 --> 00:00:29.880 who said that, at the time you started the company, 13 00:00:29.880 --> 00:00:31.460 you came to him and said you really wanted 14 00:00:31.460 --> 00:00:35.170 an opportunity to be able to share with organizations 15 00:00:35.170 --> 00:00:37.500 the intelligence that you had, type of intelligence 16 00:00:37.500 --> 00:00:38.860 you'd gathered in your career. 17 00:00:38.860 --> 00:00:41.700 How has IronNet evolved in the 18 00:00:41.700 --> 00:00:43.340 nearly six years you've been up? 19 00:00:43.340 --> 00:00:45.541 Well, at times it appears slowly. 20 00:00:45.541 --> 00:00:46.374 (chuckling) 21 00:00:46.374 --> 00:00:49.120 But actually, it's been a great journey 22 00:00:49.120 --> 00:00:50.800 learning the commercial sector 23 00:00:50.800 --> 00:00:52.600 line:15% having been in the government. 24 00:00:52.600 --> 00:00:56.770 line:15% In the commercial sector, you know, you have to pay people, 25 00:00:56.770 --> 00:00:59.310 in the government, the government pays for them. 26 00:00:59.310 --> 00:01:03.200 More importantly though, to answer your specific question, 27 00:01:03.200 --> 00:01:06.340 when we looked at the issue of what the government 28 00:01:06.340 --> 00:01:09.440 was responsible for, defending the nation, 29 00:01:09.440 --> 00:01:12.660 in cyber, we couldn't see the nation. 30 00:01:12.660 --> 00:01:17.120 As a consequence, how do you defend what you can't see? 31 00:01:17.120 --> 00:01:20.890 And the answer is, it's normally incident response. 32 00:01:20.890 --> 00:01:25.590 So we set about on a course to change that. 33 00:01:25.590 --> 00:01:29.200 And that is, how do we create collective defense 34 00:01:29.200 --> 00:01:33.120 so that we could share that information anonymized, 35 00:01:33.120 --> 00:01:35.050 without personally identifiable information, 36 00:01:35.050 --> 00:01:38.020 or content of communications, but share that 37 00:01:38.020 --> 00:01:40.120 with the government so that when our nation 38 00:01:40.120 --> 00:01:42.550 is attacked, we can defend it. 39 00:01:42.550 --> 00:01:46.370 And, you know, we were really honored to have 40 00:01:46.370 --> 00:01:51.240 folks like Don Dixon and Alberto Yepez on, 41 00:01:51.240 --> 00:01:53.380 help us do this journey. 42 00:01:53.380 --> 00:01:56.110 They have tremendous experience, so building a company 43 00:01:56.110 --> 00:01:58.810 is different than starting cyber command. 44 00:01:58.810 --> 00:01:59.643 Right. 45 00:01:59.643 --> 00:02:02.723 So, it's been a great ride. 46 00:02:03.560 --> 00:02:06.040 It is really good to see the quality 47 00:02:06.040 --> 00:02:07.640 of people in the private sector, 48 00:02:07.640 --> 00:02:09.080 as well as what we've had in government. 49 00:02:09.080 --> 00:02:12.070 So it's been an amazing journey. 50 00:02:12.070 --> 00:02:14.330 And we are now at a point where I think 51 00:02:14.330 --> 00:02:16.260 the company is starting to take off. 52 00:02:16.260 --> 00:02:17.093 Yeah. 53 00:02:17.093 --> 00:02:18.370 Which is really good. 54 00:02:18.370 --> 00:02:21.600 So, it's been an honor and privilege to be part of it. 55 00:02:21.600 --> 00:02:24.660 And I enjoy it, you know, it's a rollercoaster ride, 56 00:02:24.660 --> 00:02:28.550 but really amazing to see the great people that we have. 57 00:02:28.550 --> 00:02:30.030 You talked about collective defense, 58 00:02:30.030 --> 00:02:31.880 and this is something you speak about frequently. 59 00:02:31.880 --> 00:02:36.420 Can you define it for me and talk about how we get 60 00:02:36.420 --> 00:02:39.573 to that stage of collective defense and how it manifests? 61 00:02:40.760 --> 00:02:42.200 That's a great question. 62 00:02:42.200 --> 00:02:44.900 So, there's two analogies that I would 63 00:02:44.900 --> 00:02:46.240 give you for collective defense. 64 00:02:46.240 --> 00:02:48.930 The first is, if you think about collective defense 65 00:02:48.930 --> 00:02:52.480 and you think about air traffic control. 66 00:02:52.480 --> 00:02:56.690 When you flew out here, the radars created a picture 67 00:02:56.690 --> 00:02:59.890 that allowed your plane to be seen seamlessly 68 00:02:59.890 --> 00:03:01.578 as it crossed the country. 69 00:03:01.578 --> 00:03:02.411 Yeah. 70 00:03:02.411 --> 00:03:06.970 In that regard, you had a good picture of what's going on 71 00:03:06.970 --> 00:03:10.083 because the radars share information at network speed. 72 00:03:11.220 --> 00:03:14.500 In cyber, each company works by itself 73 00:03:14.500 --> 00:03:17.250 and shares what's important, but you don't get 74 00:03:17.250 --> 00:03:20.990 the whole picture, so you don't see what's going on. 75 00:03:20.990 --> 00:03:23.030 So we want to change that. 76 00:03:23.030 --> 00:03:26.720 And so, from our perspective, collective defense is, 77 00:03:26.720 --> 00:03:29.533 imagine 90 companies, all with 10 people. 78 00:03:30.520 --> 00:03:33.310 Today those 10 people defend their company 79 00:03:33.310 --> 00:03:35.630 and do as much as they can in a day. 80 00:03:35.630 --> 00:03:39.690 Now take the other 89, let's take all 900 people 81 00:03:39.690 --> 00:03:41.720 and work them together so that they can see 82 00:03:41.720 --> 00:03:43.743 the events that are hitting all of them. 83 00:03:45.170 --> 00:03:48.100 900 people working together will accomplish more 84 00:03:48.100 --> 00:03:50.430 than 10 working by themselves. 85 00:03:50.430 --> 00:03:54.200 And the power of the network can be realized 86 00:03:54.200 --> 00:03:55.940 in doing something like that. 87 00:03:55.940 --> 00:03:58.490 Imagine the big shift that we have. 88 00:03:58.490 --> 00:03:59.323 So there's a couple things 89 00:03:59.323 --> 00:04:01.110 that you have to do to make that work. 90 00:04:01.110 --> 00:04:01.943 Sure. 91 00:04:01.943 --> 00:04:05.090 In terms of technical observations of the network traffic, 92 00:04:05.090 --> 00:04:09.090 in terms of visualization and bringing all this together. 93 00:04:09.090 --> 00:04:12.300 But when you do that, it will change the way 94 00:04:12.300 --> 00:04:15.400 we defend our country, our allies, our states, 95 00:04:15.400 --> 00:04:18.090 our sectors, in individual companies. 96 00:04:18.090 --> 00:04:20.820 I think that's the journey that we're on. 97 00:04:20.820 --> 00:04:23.910 And we need to do it. 98 00:04:23.910 --> 00:04:25.950 Imagine, you know, if you think about this, 99 00:04:25.950 --> 00:04:29.653 in talking to a series of bank directors. 100 00:04:30.530 --> 00:04:32.870 When you think about the fact that 101 00:04:32.870 --> 00:04:35.850 the amount of information is doubling every year. 102 00:04:35.850 --> 00:04:37.960 The number of devices going on in that work 103 00:04:37.960 --> 00:04:39.830 is increasing exponentially. 104 00:04:39.830 --> 00:04:42.220 The nut types of protocols and other things, 105 00:04:42.220 --> 00:04:44.490 all this is coming together. 106 00:04:44.490 --> 00:04:48.660 Your security ops center people don't double every year, 107 00:04:48.660 --> 00:04:50.590 so their workload is doubling every year, 108 00:04:50.590 --> 00:04:51.507 how do you keep up with it? 109 00:04:51.507 --> 00:04:53.783 And the answer is, they don't. 110 00:04:54.750 --> 00:04:58.800 So, we look at them, when something happens we beat 'em up. 111 00:04:58.800 --> 00:05:00.140 We have to invest in 'em. 112 00:05:00.140 --> 00:05:02.070 So you have two opportunities. 113 00:05:02.070 --> 00:05:04.940 Double your security ops center every year 114 00:05:04.940 --> 00:05:06.410 or do collective defense 115 00:05:06.410 --> 00:05:10.540 and get a 90 times improvement right away. 116 00:05:10.540 --> 00:05:13.820 So, a board, the C-suite, 117 00:05:13.820 --> 00:05:17.940 I think will see the opportunity to make that shift. 118 00:05:17.940 --> 00:05:18.773 It's the future. 119 00:05:18.773 --> 00:05:20.350 Even the biggest companies are gonna have 120 00:05:20.350 --> 00:05:21.700 to do something like that. 121 00:05:21.700 --> 00:05:23.840 I can see cultural barriers, just in, 122 00:05:23.840 --> 00:05:25.920 getting organizations to work together. 123 00:05:25.920 --> 00:05:27.560 What are the technologies that are going to help 124 00:05:27.560 --> 00:05:29.380 overcome some of those barriers? 125 00:05:29.380 --> 00:05:32.320 Well, the cloud is probably the biggest technology to hit. 126 00:05:32.320 --> 00:05:36.640 If you think about the cloud, what you get with the cloud, 127 00:05:36.640 --> 00:05:39.640 is the ability to bring this data together. 128 00:05:39.640 --> 00:05:42.680 And so for the energy sector, we're already doing this. 129 00:05:42.680 --> 00:05:45.710 And our energy customers have been great. 130 00:05:45.710 --> 00:05:48.157 You know, the CEOs of these major companies said, 131 00:05:48.157 --> 00:05:51.200 "we need to work together to protect the grid." 132 00:05:51.200 --> 00:05:55.650 I am extremely impressed with the way they approach it. 133 00:05:55.650 --> 00:05:58.660 It's just like you would want from the government side, 134 00:05:58.660 --> 00:06:00.720 we're here for the good of the nation. 135 00:06:00.720 --> 00:06:04.950 And what we find is, the more people work together, 136 00:06:04.950 --> 00:06:06.400 the better it gets. 137 00:06:06.400 --> 00:06:09.760 And that working together is really the key. 138 00:06:09.760 --> 00:06:12.340 And it's not just within our country, 139 00:06:12.340 --> 00:06:14.960 this can be with our allies as well. 140 00:06:14.960 --> 00:06:19.230 You can create a defensive infrastructure that takes some 141 00:06:19.230 --> 00:06:22.543 of the problems that our nation faces off the table. 142 00:06:23.400 --> 00:06:26.610 You know, we used to talk about 143 00:06:26.610 --> 00:06:29.140 and still talk about, the fact that 144 00:06:32.200 --> 00:06:34.150 intellectual property theft 145 00:06:34.150 --> 00:06:37.420 is the greatest transfer of wealth in history, right? 146 00:06:37.420 --> 00:06:40.390 That's the future of our children and our grandchildren. 147 00:06:40.390 --> 00:06:43.160 And when you think about that all moving out 148 00:06:43.160 --> 00:06:47.320 and somebody stealing it, we need to stop it. 149 00:06:47.320 --> 00:06:51.370 You can't stop it by everybody working by themselves, 150 00:06:51.370 --> 00:06:53.170 we have to do that together. 151 00:06:53.170 --> 00:06:55.310 And, you know, it's interesting. 152 00:06:55.310 --> 00:06:57.917 I was asked a lot, and when I went to Congress, they'd say, 153 00:06:57.917 --> 00:06:59.910 "have you read the Constitution?" 154 00:06:59.910 --> 00:07:01.300 And I'd always keep one in my pocket, 155 00:07:01.300 --> 00:07:02.282 you mean this one? Yeah, yeah. 156 00:07:02.282 --> 00:07:03.115 (chuckling) 157 00:07:03.115 --> 00:07:04.520 Pull it out. (making whooshing sound) 158 00:07:04.520 --> 00:07:07.750 And if you look at the Preamble, it's dut-d-dut-du-dah, 159 00:07:07.750 --> 00:07:09.470 for the common defense. 160 00:07:09.470 --> 00:07:10.520 Right. When we created 161 00:07:10.520 --> 00:07:13.610 this country to do just that. 162 00:07:13.610 --> 00:07:16.740 It doesn't say for the common defense unless it's cyber. 163 00:07:16.740 --> 00:07:21.740 It doesn't say for the common defense unless it's technical. 164 00:07:22.460 --> 00:07:24.050 It's for the common defense, 165 00:07:24.050 --> 00:07:25.620 that's what we created the country. 166 00:07:25.620 --> 00:07:28.150 So, the private sector and the public sector, 167 00:07:28.150 --> 00:07:30.080 we have to work together. 168 00:07:30.080 --> 00:07:33.930 And the private sector, people like Don Dixon, 169 00:07:33.930 --> 00:07:37.220 Alberto Yepez, you know, look at the Kleiner Perkins, 170 00:07:37.220 --> 00:07:40.440 Ted Schlein, and others, understand that if we 171 00:07:40.440 --> 00:07:43.560 work together, we can provide the government 172 00:07:43.560 --> 00:07:46.170 the infrastructure from the commercial side 173 00:07:46.170 --> 00:07:47.820 to help protect this country. 174 00:07:47.820 --> 00:07:49.610 And that's what we need to do. 175 00:07:49.610 --> 00:07:51.800 General, the threat landscape has changed 176 00:07:51.800 --> 00:07:53.910 considerably since you left NSA 177 00:07:53.910 --> 00:07:54.930 and cyber command. Why am I just 178 00:07:54.930 --> 00:07:56.160 finding out about this now? 179 00:07:56.160 --> 00:07:57.070 I have notes to share 180 00:07:57.070 --> 00:07:57.903 with you. (laughing) 181 00:07:57.903 --> 00:07:58.849 Okay, all right. (laughing) 182 00:07:58.849 --> 00:08:00.300 But I know you're out this year with your own predictions 183 00:08:00.300 --> 00:08:02.010 on the cybersecurity landscape. 184 00:08:02.010 --> 00:08:03.540 Couple areas I wanna ask you about. 185 00:08:03.540 --> 00:08:08.080 Deepfakes, this is turning into a significant concern. 186 00:08:08.080 --> 00:08:11.483 How do we need to address this evolution of breach? 187 00:08:12.360 --> 00:08:16.188 Well, I think the breaches and, 188 00:08:16.188 --> 00:08:18.733 it's bigger than we understand. 189 00:08:19.690 --> 00:08:21.840 An adversary that gets into a network 190 00:08:21.840 --> 00:08:23.723 and does changes like this, 191 00:08:25.320 --> 00:08:27.100 their first thing is persistence. 192 00:08:27.100 --> 00:08:29.760 How do I keep persistent in a network? 193 00:08:29.760 --> 00:08:33.030 And so, the fact that you stumble across them, 194 00:08:33.030 --> 00:08:35.860 and you can see if you look back 10 years ago 195 00:08:35.860 --> 00:08:38.040 in some of the breaches, somebody said, we got breached, 196 00:08:38.040 --> 00:08:39.270 and then immediately we cleaned it up, 197 00:08:39.270 --> 00:08:41.146 and they open up the network, oh, they're back in. 198 00:08:41.146 --> 00:08:41.979 Right. 199 00:08:41.979 --> 00:08:43.750 They never left, they didn't get 'em all. 200 00:08:43.750 --> 00:08:47.300 So it is, the reality is, we have to change 201 00:08:47.300 --> 00:08:49.960 the way we think about cybersecurity. 202 00:08:49.960 --> 00:08:53.840 We have to go beyond signatures. 203 00:08:53.840 --> 00:08:55.940 Signatures are like barcodes. 204 00:08:55.940 --> 00:08:58.280 And barcodes can be adapted. 205 00:08:58.280 --> 00:09:01.310 And the issue then is, can we create 206 00:09:01.310 --> 00:09:05.100 a combination of signatures and behaviors 207 00:09:05.100 --> 00:09:07.470 to get us to the next generation. 208 00:09:07.470 --> 00:09:10.660 With behaviors, we can do something that we can't easily do 209 00:09:10.660 --> 00:09:13.460 with signatures, and that's use AI and machine learning. 210 00:09:14.350 --> 00:09:17.720 And if you add to that visualization, 211 00:09:17.720 --> 00:09:19.210 I think we start to address what you were 212 00:09:19.210 --> 00:09:20.600 just talking about, deepfakes and others. 213 00:09:20.600 --> 00:09:21.500 And that's what we have to do, 214 00:09:21.500 --> 00:09:25.310 you have to bring this together, I think working together, 215 00:09:25.310 --> 00:09:27.880 and the government has some tremendous resources 216 00:09:27.880 --> 00:09:29.320 that they can apply to it. 217 00:09:29.320 --> 00:09:31.790 But they can't apply them in areas where you 218 00:09:31.790 --> 00:09:34.270 don't have a foundation for understanding. 219 00:09:34.270 --> 00:09:36.480 So this is where sharing information, 220 00:09:36.480 --> 00:09:38.620 like we're talking about, will help the government 221 00:09:38.620 --> 00:09:40.960 and the private sector work together. 222 00:09:40.960 --> 00:09:41.793 One more area. 223 00:09:41.793 --> 00:09:44.550 Talk to me about the evolution of the nation-state threat. 224 00:09:44.550 --> 00:09:46.460 And I found it interesting in your predictions 225 00:09:46.460 --> 00:09:48.893 that you say that, yes, 226 00:09:49.750 --> 00:09:52.930 2020 elections are going to be impacted but maybe not 227 00:09:52.930 --> 00:09:55.033 to the degree that we think they will be. 228 00:09:56.020 --> 00:09:59.640 I say that in part, I'm really impressed with, 229 00:09:59.640 --> 00:10:03.090 where NSA, and cyber command, and DHS have gone. 230 00:10:03.090 --> 00:10:06.630 Tremendous move forward, General Paul Nakasone 231 00:10:06.630 --> 00:10:08.653 and the team, a great job there. 232 00:10:09.550 --> 00:10:11.920 Our hats should be off to them and the rest 233 00:10:11.920 --> 00:10:13.870 for what they do for our country. 234 00:10:13.870 --> 00:10:17.700 And what the president has done is given them the authority, 235 00:10:17.700 --> 00:10:19.770 rules of engagement, classified set, 236 00:10:19.770 --> 00:10:21.120 so I don't know what they all are. 237 00:10:21.120 --> 00:10:21.953 Right. And nor could we 238 00:10:21.953 --> 00:10:22.830 talk about 'em. 239 00:10:22.830 --> 00:10:27.750 But to, for persistent engagement, and to help shut down 240 00:10:27.750 --> 00:10:30.180 impact on our election, which they did in 2018, 241 00:10:30.180 --> 00:10:32.290 which was publicly revealed. 242 00:10:32.290 --> 00:10:35.350 And in doing that, what you see, 243 00:10:35.350 --> 00:10:37.670 yeah, they did a pretty good job. 244 00:10:37.670 --> 00:10:42.000 Now, nation-states are gonna go after our elections. 245 00:10:42.000 --> 00:10:43.490 And for a couple reasons. 246 00:10:43.490 --> 00:10:46.020 The biggest reason is to get information on the candidates 247 00:10:46.020 --> 00:10:47.979 and what their real policy is. 248 00:10:47.979 --> 00:10:48.812 Yeah. 249 00:10:48.812 --> 00:10:50.610 If so and so is elected, 250 00:10:50.610 --> 00:10:53.870 what is he or she going to do when they're in office. 251 00:10:53.870 --> 00:10:56.100 And they wanna know, they wanna be prepared for it. 252 00:10:56.100 --> 00:10:58.320 So they're gonna go after that information. 253 00:10:58.320 --> 00:11:00.900 So if you wanna defend that, imagine, 254 00:11:00.900 --> 00:11:04.187 do you defend it with 10 people or 1,000? 255 00:11:04.187 --> 00:11:07.420 And the answer is, collective, so that we have to go there. 256 00:11:07.420 --> 00:11:09.340 And the other part is if, 257 00:11:09.340 --> 00:11:11.120 what if somebody's trying to get into it? 258 00:11:11.120 --> 00:11:13.060 Would you want the government to know that? 259 00:11:13.060 --> 00:11:14.290 Absolutely. 260 00:11:14.290 --> 00:11:15.330 How do you share it today? 261 00:11:15.330 --> 00:11:17.440 Well, we don't have a good way for sharing it so you need to 262 00:11:17.440 --> 00:11:19.940 take that collective defense approach and do that. 263 00:11:21.090 --> 00:11:24.240 The second part, which is a little bit more difficult, 264 00:11:24.240 --> 00:11:25.270 is fake news. 265 00:11:25.270 --> 00:11:26.103 Yeah. 266 00:11:26.103 --> 00:11:26.936 Okay. 267 00:11:26.936 --> 00:11:29.420 I'm gonna expand fake news a little bit. 268 00:11:29.420 --> 00:11:32.980 In my world, fake news is when I give you half the story. 269 00:11:32.980 --> 00:11:35.160 Do you remember when you were a kid, 270 00:11:35.160 --> 00:11:37.280 okay, I was always in trouble as a kid. 271 00:11:37.280 --> 00:11:39.480 You know, so you'd give your version of the story, 272 00:11:39.480 --> 00:11:41.760 this is what happened, and you'd lead the truth 273 00:11:41.760 --> 00:11:42.740 and then you'd stop and say, 274 00:11:42.740 --> 00:11:44.830 but, you know, this also happened. 275 00:11:44.830 --> 00:11:47.423 In the news when you read about things, you see, 276 00:11:48.340 --> 00:11:51.290 oftentimes we talk about the sensational part 277 00:11:51.290 --> 00:11:52.760 without balancing it. 278 00:11:52.760 --> 00:11:55.710 So, this is where you and what you folks do here 279 00:11:55.710 --> 00:11:57.890 can be so good for our country. 280 00:11:57.890 --> 00:12:00.400 Let's tell the American people 281 00:12:00.400 --> 00:12:02.560 and our allies the whole story. 282 00:12:02.560 --> 00:12:03.393 Yeah. 283 00:12:03.393 --> 00:12:06.540 So that they can make the right decision with the facts. 284 00:12:06.540 --> 00:12:09.930 And in the elections 285 00:12:09.930 --> 00:12:12.150 what concerns me most, 286 00:12:12.150 --> 00:12:14.800 is if somebody comes in with a story, 287 00:12:14.800 --> 00:12:17.940 like Russia did in Ukraine, 288 00:12:17.940 --> 00:12:21.190 to actually get people to start arguing over things 289 00:12:21.190 --> 00:12:23.400 where there was no real fact in the story. 290 00:12:23.400 --> 00:12:24.233 Yeah. 291 00:12:24.233 --> 00:12:26.370 Remember there was this issue about a Russian boy 292 00:12:26.370 --> 00:12:28.920 being bayoneted and his body being put in the-- 293 00:12:28.920 --> 00:12:30.060 It never happened. 294 00:12:30.060 --> 00:12:32.410 But it really got the Russian 295 00:12:34.080 --> 00:12:36.580 citizens in Ukraine up in-- 296 00:12:36.580 --> 00:12:38.160 Well General, I appreciate your time and insight. 297 00:12:38.160 --> 00:12:39.370 I could sit here and talk with ya all day 298 00:12:39.370 --> 00:12:40.810 but I know you've got other appointments. 299 00:12:40.810 --> 00:12:41.643 Well, thank you. Thanks so much 300 00:12:41.643 --> 00:12:42.480 for spending time with us. 301 00:12:42.480 --> 00:12:44.810 Honored to be here and honored to see you again. 302 00:12:44.810 --> 00:12:47.070 Again, we've been talking with General Keith Alexander. 303 00:12:47.070 --> 00:12:50.200 He is the CEO of IronNet Cybersecurity. 304 00:12:50.200 --> 00:12:53.200 For Information Security Media Group, I'm Tom Field. 305 00:12:53.200 --> 00:12:54.177 Thank you very much. 306 00:12:54.177 --> 00:12:56.844 (serious music)